[转]手把手教你做个柠檬电池! - 炫Q香蕉派

[转]手把手教你做个柠檬电池!

科学课上经常告诉我们可以用柠檬制造一个简易电池。但是想成功制造一个能用的却不是那么容易。跟我们来做一个柠檬电池,然后用LED灯照亮你的小窝吧。 

Batteries consist of two different metals suspended in an acidic solution. Copper and Zinc work well as the metals and the citric acid content of a lemon will provide the acidic solution.
在使用酸的电池制造方式中需要两种不同的金属。铜和锌是非常好的选择,因为它们能和柠檬中的柠檬酸形成很好的酸性电池环境。

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Batteries like this will not be able to run a motor or energize most light bulbs. It is possible to produce a dim glow from an LED.
像这样的电池还不能为发动机或者大部分的灯泡提供能量。但是已经足够让一个LED灯发出微弱的灯光。

The lemon: A large, fresh, "juicy" lemon works best.
新鲜个大汁液充足的柠檬是我们的不二选择。

The nail: Galvanized nails are coated in zinc. I used a 2" galvanized common nail.
钉子一般会用锌镀上一层外皮。这里我选用一般的二号镀锌钉。

The penny: Any copper coin will work.
任何一种铜硬币都可以发挥作用。

Creating the battery: Insert a penny into a cut on one side of the lemon. Push a galvanized nail into the other side of the lemon.
来制作我们的电池:在柠檬的一侧切开一个小口,将硬币插进去,然后将镀锌的钉子插入到柠檬的另外一边。

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The nail and penny must not touch.
钉子和硬币绝对不能互相接触。

This is a single cell of a battery. The zinc nail and the copper penny are called electrodes. The lemon juice is called electrolyte.
如图所示是一个单芯的电池。镀锌钉和铜硬币就是电池的电极。而柠檬中的柠檬汁就是电解质。

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All batteries have a "+" and "-" terminal.
所有的电池都应该有正负两端。

Electric current is a flow of atomic particles called electrons. Certain materials , called conductors, allow electrons to flow through them. Most metals (copper, iron) are good conductors of electricity. Electrons will flow from the "-" electrode of a battery, through a conductor, towards the "+" electrode of a battery. Volts (voltage) is a measure of the force moving the electrons.
电流是由叫做电子的微粒流动而形成的。某些导体能让电子随意穿过他们。它们中的绝大部分都像铜和锌一样,是电流的良导体。电子将有负电极流出,经过导体,流进电池的正极。而电压则是一种对电子推力大小的测量。

I have connected a volt meter to our single cell lemon battery. The meter tells us this lemon battery is creating a voltage of 0.906 volts.
我将一个电压计连到了我们的单芯柠檬电池上。电压计显示柠檬电池可以提供0.906伏特的电压。

Unfortunately this battery will not produce enough current (flowing electrons) to light a bulb.
不幸的是这个电压还不能产生足够的电流来点亮一个灯泡。

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To solve this problem we can combine battery cells to create higher voltages. Building more lemon batteries and connecting them with a metal wire from "+" to "-" adds the voltage from each cell.
为了解决这个问题,我们可以将多个柠檬电池串联起来一次产生较高的电压。我们可以用前面的方法做更多的柠檬电池,并用金属线将他们之间的正负极连接起来来让电压加成。

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The two lemon batteries above, combine to produce a voltage of 1.788 volts. This combination still does not create enough current to light a small bulb. Note the red wire connecting the batteries is joined from "+" (penny) to "-" (galvanized nail).
如图所示,将两个柠檬电池串联起来我们可以产生1.788伏特的电压。这样产生的电压还是不够支撑起一个小灯泡。一定要注意图中的红线是用来由+(硬币)连接到-(钉子)。

Four lemon batteries create a voltage of 3.50 volts. We should be able to light up a small device like an LED (Light Emitting Diode).
4个柠檬电池一起可以产生3.50伏特的电压。我们可以用它来驱动一个小型的用电装置,像LED灯(Light Emitting Diode)。

Note the connecting wires go from "+" to "-" on each battery.
注意,每个电池之间都是将正极和负极相连。

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To turn on an LED you must determine the "+" and "-" connections. If you look closely at the red plastic base of an LED you will notice a "flat" spot (indicated by arrow above). The wire that comes out beside the flat spot must connect to the "-" side of a battery, the other wire to the "+" side.
想要LED灯发光,你必须先判断LED的正极和负极。自己观察LED的红色塑料地盘,你会看到一个平点(如图中箭头所示)。由平点后面出来的线必须被连接到电池的负极。另外一根则连接到正极。

Important information about LED's: LED's are designed to work at very low voltages (~ 2V) and low currents. They will be damaged if connected to batteries rated at over 2 volts. LED's require resistors to control current when used with batteries rated at over 2 volts. Lemon batteries produce low current. It is OK to connect an LED to a lemon battery.
关于LED的重要信息:LED是被用来工作在非常小的电压(大约2伏)和电流环境下的。如果供电的电压超过2伏,LED有可能被烧毁。当使用2伏以上的电池时,需要使用额外的电阻来帮助控制电流。而柠檬电池只能产生较小的电流,完全可以将它直接连到LED的两端。

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In the above image, electrons flow from the "-" (nail) end of our lemon battery through the LED (making it glow) then back to the "+" (penny) end of the battery. This is an electronic circuit. The LED glows dimly with this configuration.
如上图所示,电子由钉子一端流出柠檬电池经过LED然后由硬币那一端流回电池。这整个形成了一个电路。在这种环境下LED能发出微弱的光。

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Improving your battery.
加强你的电池

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The quality of the copper and zinc can be a problem for a battery like this. Pennies in particular are rarely pure copper. Try substituting a length of 14 gauge copper wire (common house wire) for the penny. Experiment with different lengths and configurations of electrodes. Other sources of zinc and copper may be found in the plumbing supply department of a hardware store.
像这种样子的电池,铜和锌的质量至关重要。一般来说,硬币很少使用纯铜制造的。可以尝试使用14号铜线(家里最常见的那种)来提到硬币。可以做实验使用不同长度的铜线来当电极。在器材商店的水管部应该可以找到其他的铜锌来源。

转者补充,以下资料来自百度百科“水果电池”

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译者:MarkTwain 原作者:amazing-planet.net
原文连接:http://article.yeeyan.org/view/MarkTwain/130296

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